Observations show that the flow of Rutford Ice Stream (RIS) is strongly modulated by the ocean tides, with the strongest tidal response at the 14.77 day tidal period (Msf). This is striking because this period is absent in the tidal forcing. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to account for this effect, yet previous modeling studies have struggled to match the observed large amplitude and decay length scale. We use a nonlinear 3-D viscoelastic full-Stokes model of ice-stream flow to investigate this open issue. We find that the long period Msf modulation of ice-stream velocity observed in data cannot be reproduced quantitatively without including a coupling between basal sliding and tidal subglacial water pressure variations. Furthermore, the subglacial water system must be highly conductive and at low effective pressure, and the relationship between sliding velocity and effective pressure highly nonlinear in order for the model results to match GPS measurements. Hydrological and basal sliding model parameters that produced a best fit to observations were a mean effective pressure N of 105 kPa, subglacial drainage system conductivity K of 7 × 109 m2d-1, with sliding law exponents m = 3 and q =10. Coupled model results show the presence of tides result in a ~ 12% increase in mean surface velocity. Observations of tidally-induced variations in flow of ice-streams provide stronger constraints on basal sliding processes than provided by any other set of measurements.
Bringing fictional stories to life through events and competition is not an uncommon trend on college campuses. The game of “Quidditch” from the Harry Potter series has been seen at schools across the country, “zombies” have been seen darting across Notre Dame’s campus this past September and this month, 30 lucky Notre Dame “tributes” will bravely compete in their very own version of “The Hunger Games.” Residence halls will pin students against one another to showcase skill, bravery and survival on Sunday, Oct. 28 from 1 to 5 p.m. during the first annual competition. As any “Hunger Games” fan knows, the ultimate goal of the tournament is to kill off opponents and to be the last one standing in the arena, a rather morbid concept. Luckily for these tributes, event organizer and Howard Hall tribute Clare Robins has found a more humane way of determining the true victor. “We certainly weren’t going to replicate the games,” Robins said. “So paintballing seemed the closest way to simulate them.” The arena, located in White Field, will be encased in netting and receive a new smattering of color, as tributes dodge paintballs and obstacles on their quest for victory. During the competition, the games will play out as a series of tournaments. The first set of smaller tournaments will consist of six tributes representing three districts, where each district is a combination of a brother and sister residence hall. The victors from each round will then compete in the championship round, which involves not only tributes, but also any fellow Hunger Games fanatics who would like to participate. Along with confidence, extra support from previous attendance at the Hunger Games events will pay off in sponsorship. Tributes may receive extra paintballs, or early entry in the arena, based on previous points scored. As the games draw nearer, tributes have starte showing their excitement for the competition. “I plan to dominate,” Kevin Katalinic, a tribute from St. Edward’s, said, when asked about the upcoming games. Katalinic said he has no plans to strategize, but will go into the games riding on the confidence of his raw talent. Carroll tribute, William Murra, said he was “Nervous” but “confident in [his] archery skills.” Rivalries have already worked their way into these games. When asked if any tributes looked particularly threatening, Sorin tribute, Johnny Whichard said Walsh, Zahm and Fisher pose as threat, and will be the first ones to be “taken out.” However, not all tributes are as impressed by their competition “I looked in a mirror and decided that the only competition was myself,” tribute Paul Barron said.
On June 12,, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph C. Novario became the new Inspector Instructor at the Change of Command Ceremony at the Marine Base in Red Bank.Lieutenant Colonel Novario is taking over the position that was held by Lieutenant Colonel Charles M. Long.As stated in the program for the ceremony, the Change of Command Ceremony is a time-honored tradition, which formally restates to the officers and personnel of the command continuity of authority.It is a formal ritual conducted before the assembled unit. It is a transfer of total responsibility, authority and accountability from one individual to another.Lieutenant Colonel Novario was presented Change in Command in front of co-workers, friends and his family: his wife Meredith and their children Eli, Henry and Josephine.– By Jaclyn Shugard
Here’s a quick survey of news about fossils, including remains of some monstrous creatures and a tiny one, too.DinosaursHell Creek T. rex: Another big Tyrranosaurus rex was found in the Hell Creek Formation in northern Montana. “The find, which paleontologists estimate to be about 20 percent of the animal, includes vertebrae, ribs, hips and lower jaw bones,” PhysOrg says, not to overlook a fairly complete skull. “Although arguably the most iconic and well-known dinosaur, T. rex fossils are rare,” the article says.Did Nanotyrranus exist? The BBC News weighs in on the controversy about Nanotyrannus, a supposed miniature version of T. rex. Reporter Alex Riley considers the views of various experts. Most likely, the celebrated type specimen named “Jane” was not a separate species, but a juvenile of the big ones. “Meet Nanotyrannus, the dinosaur that never really existed,” his headline reads.Duck-bill teeth: How would you like to have 300 teeth that automatically get replaced? Duckbill dinosaur teeth came in on conveyor belts in their mouths, PhysOrg says — a dentist’s dream. Using microscopies, scientists in Canada examined the “unique dental system” of hadrosaurs that apparently worked in juveniles as well as adults. “It’s very elegant – not a single brick of teeth working as a solid unit,” a researcher says. “It’s more like chain mail, providing flexibility as well as strength.”Footprint national park: A huge dinosaur footprint measuring nearly four feet across has been found in a remote desert in Bolivia. “Bolivia is already known for the region’s Cal Orcko Park, one of the world’s largest beds of fossilized footprints, which has more than 10,000 prints left by nearly 300 species of dinosaur,” PhysOrg says, “But Maragua, where Marquina discovered the giant abelisaurid theropod print, is far more remote.”MammalsWhale of a baleen: In Peru, scientists were delighted to find a fossil whale with its baleen so well preserved they could detect its microstructure. Science Daily teased with “Whales in the desert?” Sure enough, the fossil was found high and dry in the country’s Cerro Colorado desert, hundreds of feet above today’s sea level. The press release from the Geological Society of America omits the question mark after “desert,” stating, “The exceptionality of the finding is that the casts provide details at the submillimetric scale, revealing under the microscope the subtle structure of the baleen bristles.” The full paper is published in Geology. There’s no indication that soft tissue was preserved, but think about how rapidly this whale had to be buried to preserve such details of its baleen:A rapid formation of the concretion was fundamental for fossilization. We suggest that the whale foundered in a soft sediment chemically favorable to rapid dolomite precipitation, allowing the preservation of delicate structures.Squirrely lion: Would you believe a lion the size of a squirrel? That’s what National Geographic says about a marsupial lion fossil found in Australia. They’re basing this on one tooth of the only known specimen of a species named Microleo (tiny lion). New Scientist has more information from three specimens of its larger relative Thylacoleo, saying that it was a small but fully-equipped predator. Its “primate-like arms” would have allowed it to “slash at prey with large, retractable thumb claws.” A researcher says, “It probably looked like a cross between a small bear and a wombat.”Cave bear demise: What killed off the cave bears? Science Daily speculates that it went vegan and couldn’t adapt. Nature says that “longing for home” did them in. Since nobody has seen these extinct bears, you can make up your own version of why they just didn’t get the adaptation game.Nightmare scenario: Speaking of caves, PhysOrg tells of a fossil cache that could start bad dreams. An opening in the ground in Wyoming drops into a huge bell-shaped cavern, where anything that ventures in falls eight stories to its death. Natural Trap Cave is covered with a grate now, but paleontologists rappelling in with ropes have been looking at the bones of ice age mammals that perished: wolf, bison, lion, cheetah and wolverine. Lions in Wyoming? Cheetahs? Really? The bones provide the evidence such predators used to live in the western United States. Researchers think this cave was a natural trap for thousands of years.OtherReinterpreting jaw evolution: “Scientists use the fossil record to make judgments on the physiology and behavior of species,” Science Daily says. “But are those interpretations correct?” A biologist at the University of Notre Dame is asking. Bottom line: diet and eating habits can have a profound effect on jaw shape. A paleontologist might attribute a trait to a species characteristic instead of a life history characteristic. Matthew Ravosa says, “our research offers novel insight into the limitations of functional interpretations of fossils. Because the palaeontological record largely consists of skeletal remains, we show that failure to account for disparities in the responses of hard versus soft tissues may also result in incorrect characterizations of adaptive changes in extinct mammals.”The hidden half of plants (PNAS): Investigating rhizomes in paleosols (fossil soils), an international team pushed back the origin of tree roots by 20 million years.The roots and rhizomes of early vascular plants, and their interactions with soils, are poorly documented. Here we report on the complex, belowground rhizome systems of an Early Devonian plant, and their contribution to the formation of the earliest record of rooted red-bed soils in Asia. Our specimens predate the earliest trees with deep roots from the Middle Devonian by 20 million years. We propose that plant rhizomes have long functioned in terrestrial ecosystems, playing important roles in shaping Earth’s environments by reducing soil erosion rates and thereby increasing the stability of land surface and resilience of plant communities.This is the latest instance of finding complexity further back in the fossil record than expected. It usually doesn’t go the other way. Such findings put pressure on Darwinian processes, making complex systems emerge faster in less time. The Devonian, we all learned in school, was supposed to be the “age of fishes” not of complex vascular plants. Scientists have missed half the picture by just looking above ground. “Such a knowledge gap hinders a deep understanding of the ecology of early plants and their roles in terrestrial environments,” they worry.The news here is varied. Think about the difference between observation and theory, between gradualism and rapid burial, and between expectation and empirical evidence. 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FROM WHENCE WATER?By Henry L. Richter, PhD, PE (Ret)From time to time, articles appear conjecturing as to where the water on our earth came from. A case in point is a paper by Hanneke Weitering in Space.com entitled: “Water Found in Tiny dust Particles from Asteroid Itokawa.” He states: “Scientists have found traces of water in dust grains from the peanut-shaped asteroid Itokawa, and the discovery could shed light on how Earth got its water.” Another recent article on Space.com, this one by Elizabeth Howell, speculates that comets brought the water. These articles are typical, speculating that Earth’s water came from outside, from small (or large?) bodies impacting the earth.Earthrise from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, December 2015. Our “blue planet” stands out like a jewel in space.A Thin VeneerThe Earth does have quite a bit of water, which we know is essential to life. But really only a very small percentage of the Earth is water. As a liquid, it covers a little over half of the surface of the Earth to an average depth of just under four kilometers, out of a total radius of the Earth of 6,370 km. This computes to about .06% of the Earth’s volume being water. One can add all the water in minerals bound in the surface and mantle rocks, perhaps adding another small fraction of a percent. Although only a small percentage of our Earth is water, it is nevertheless a substantial amount.Naturalism’s Infinite RegressWater is felt to be fairly common in the universe. Another article in Space.com, titled,“Mysterious ‘Sub-Neptunes’ are Probably Water Worlds” says:Water worlds that each possesses thousands of times more water than Earth does may be more common than Earth-like rocky planets in the Milky Way Galaxy, a new study finds. Over the past 20 or so years, astronomers have confirmed the existence of thousands of exoplanets, or planets around other stars. Many exoplanets are quite unlike any planets in our solar system. For example, so-called super-Earths have diameters up to twice that of Earth, and ‘sub-Neptune’ worlds are two to four times wider than Earth. (Neptune’s diameter is about four times Earth’s.)Now, why do scientists need explanations of where the water came from? The answer is that they feel compelled to reach for naturalistic causes for everything. The idea that everything was created essentially “as is,” is a concept they cannot (or will not) imagine or consider. If a multitude of asteroid-type bodies delivered our water by special delivery, another question arises: where did the asteroids get their (small amount) of water at the beginning?Common Sense Answers to Worthwhile QuestionsI do not want to criticize the asking of questions like “where did the water come from?” But in considering possible answers, common sense needs to be applied. In this case, the small amount of water bound into crystals on a space rock is hardly a plausible source of our oceans. It is highly unlikely that liquid water came to us on space rocks, since such rocks spend time in the high vacuum of space. Any liquid water would evaporate or sublime.Dr Richter managed the instruments for Explorer 1, America’s first satelliteSimilarly, common-sense questions need to be supplied for other vital ingredients:Where did our carbon come from?Where did the iron-nickel core of the earth come from?Where did the oxygen and nitrogen of our atmosphere come from?…and so on for other finely-balanced aspects of EarthBalanced Ingredients and CyclesThe amount of each ingredient is also important. Why is the oxygen content only 20%? Could we live if the atmosphere were oxygen alone, at a pressure of one fifth of an atmosphere? – that is the same partial pressure of oxygen we have now. I suspect that nitrogen, relatively inert in its triple-bonded form, is there to give us more gas volume to flush out our lungs, because oxygen alone would not work for us. We need nitrogen, of course, as an essential element for the proteins in our bodies. The levels of each of the essential ingredients for life is maintained through amazingly balanced cycles: the water cycle, the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, and the oxygen cycle.We all know that our Earth is a very unique place. Not only do we have water (of the proper kind), but we have all sorts of other elements and compounds that make life possible. Are we just very lucky, or have we been given a specially created habitat in space for our dwelling? There are so very many features of our Earth that have to be just as they are, that the possibility of an accidental collection and combination of all these factors is vanishingly small. Special creation is the only reasonable explanation.Dr. Henry Richter was born in Long Beach, California, and served a short tour of duty in the U.S. Navy in World War II. From there he received a BS and PhD (Chemistry, Physics, and Electrical Engineering) from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena California. Then he went to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which became part of NASA. While there he headed up the development of the free worlds first earth satellite, Explorer I. He then oversaw the scientific instrumentation for the Ranger, Mariner, and Surveyor Programs. From JPL, he went to Electro-Optical Systems becoming a Vice President and Technical Director. Next was a staff position with UCLA as Development Manager of the Mountain Park Research Campus. He then owned an electronics manufacturing business and afterwards became the Communications Engineer for the L.A. County Sheriffs Department. Since 1977, he has been a communications consultant to Public Safety organizations. He is a life member of APCO, the IEEE, and the American Chemical Society. His book America’s Leap into Space details the origins of rocketry and his own role in the launching of the first American satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958. Henry Richter is also author of Spacecraft Earth: A Guide for Passengers, with co-author David Coppedge (Creation Ministries International, 2016). Creation-Evolution Headlines is honored to have Dr Richter as a contribution writer. See his Author Profile for his previous contributions.Dr Richter’s book examines many amazing finely-tuned “coincidences” that make our planet habitable(Visited 618 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
11 July 2012South African champion dancer Keoikantse Motsepe has joined the cast of the internationally successful Burn the Floor company, which kicked off a three-city The Temperature Rises South African tour in Cape Town on Wednesday night.Motsepe has been the undefeated South African Latin American champion since 2004, but began his journey as a dancer at the age of five when a friend suggested they give it a try. By seven, he knew he had found his calling.He went for formal training at the Corenergy Dance Centre in Johannesburg and began representing South Africa in all major Latin Dance championships internationally in 2003.He was also the country’s representative at the World Latin Championships in New York City in 2010.His ‘Burn the Floor’ journeyMotsepe’s spot as a cast member of Burn the Floor came about purely by chance as he did not even want to watch the show when it first toured Johannesburg in July and August 2011.“At first I was resistant to see it,” he said this week. “But after a few seconds, I realised it was the best dance show I had ever seen. I was blown away, to be honest; I can’t describe the feeling.”This prompted him to contact Burn the Floor’s company manager and executive producer, Peta Roby. He secured an audition and began touring with the company in January on its Burn the Floor – The Temperature Rises tour. “Dreams certainly do come true,” Motsepe said.The show has travelled around the United States, China and Australia and has just embarked on its South African leg of the tour, which will cover Cape Town, Johannesburg and Durban.Although Motsepe has not been with the company for long, he has made an impression. “Keo [his nickname] is a breath of fresh air, polite, a real gentleman and very popular in the company,” said director and choreographer Jason Gilkison.“His family should be proud. His work ethic and commitment to his performance is unquestionable, and on the dance floor – simple: he owns it,” Gilkison said.“The South African audiences are in for a real treat.”Raising the mercuryThe response to Burn the Floor’s 2011 tour to Johannesburg was overwhelming, and the company played to sold-out audiences at The Joburg Theatre Complex. Cape Town residents wanted a piece of the action, which led to the company deciding to return to South Africa in 2012 for a more comprehensive tour.The Temperature Rises tour will run at the Artscape Opera House in Cape Town from 11 to 29 July, before making its way to the Joburg Theatre from 1 to 19 August and the Playhouse Opera Theatre in Durban from 22 August to 2 September.Audiences can expect electricity on the stage, with 18 international championship dancers at the top of their game. For those who have already seen the show in Johannesburg, they need not expect the same tricks to be rehashed.“I have re-choreographed numerous numbers, changed five songs in the show and have re-costumed the second act,” said Gilkison. “The show’s new ending will blow you away, and blow any perceptions you have of ballroom dancing.”The show’s creator, Harley Medcalf, agreed: “It takes the performance to a whole new level, feel and energy.”Humble beginningsBurn the Floor began as just a special performance for Sir Elton John’s 50th birthday celebrations in 1997. A group of 16 dancers performed a 10-minute dance cabaret, which inspired Medcalf, an Australian theatre producer, to build a full-length stage show around the same concept.Burn the Floor has since become a worldwide phenomenon, having toured 30 countries and over 160 cities. It features performers from 10 countries, who have over 100 championship dance titles between them.The show uses what is called “international style”, which is made up of 10 dances – five standard ballroom and five Latin American dances.The standard ballroom dances are the waltz, foxtrot, Viennese waltz, tango and quickstep, while the Latin American dances are the cha cha, samba, paso doble, rumba and jive.SAinfo reporter
10 March 2015Investment in African mega projects surged 46% to $326-billion (almost R4-trillion) in 2014, led by heavy investment in transport, energy and power, according to the third annual Deloitte African Construction Trends Report, which monitors progress on capital intensive infrastructure on the continent.To qualify for inclusion in the report, projects must be valued at more than $50- million and had to have broken ground by at least 1 June 2014. While the number of projects that qualified for inclusion in the 2014 report fell to 257 from 322 the year before, the total value of projects under construction increased from $222.77-billion in 2013.“Africa’s rapidly growing middle class continues to drive demand for sustainable social infrastructure,” said Andre Pottas, Deloitte regional director. “Africa is en route to a brighter future and overall we see the opportunities surpassing the challenges facing our continent.”Of the projects in the 2014 Deloitte African Construction Trends Report, 143 were led by the public sector; a further 88 were private sector initiatives and 26 were classified as public private partnerships (PPPs). Energy and power accounted for 37% of the mega projects undertaken in Africa in 2014, followed by transport (34%), mining (9%), property (6%), water (5%), oil and gas (4%), mixed use facilities (2%) and health care (1%).“More than 10% of the projects included in this year’s survey were structured as PPPs, which is an increase from about 4% the previous year,” said Pottas. “That is very encouraging to see as we believe that significant private sector participation is required alongside government initiatives in order to enable Africa to close its infrastructure gap with the rest of the world.”Southern Africa led construction activity on the continent, accounting for $144.89- billion in projects, or 44.5% of the total value. West Africa overtook East Africa, with the region attracting $74.84-billion in projects, or 23% of the total projects on the continent by value.Central Africa experienced a massive 117% surge in the value of construction projects, which reached $33.21-billion while North Africa saw the value of construction projects jump almost 36% to $9.12-billion. East Africa experienced a moderate 10% decline in the value of projects, which nevertheless totalled a respectable $60.67-billion in 2014.“Africa continues to be a magnet for foreign direct investment (FDI) and intra-African capital inflows,” said Pottas. “With a 76% completion rate of projects collected from our previous report, expectations remain high for infrastructure to provide the developing continent with much needed market expansion.”Africa’s infrastructural transformation is being driven by increased output in the natural resources sector, which in turn has underpinned rising fiscal expenditure on infrastructure projects to facilitate rising international trade with the continent.At the same time, rapidly growing urbanisation and rising domestic demand in Africa has ushered in an unprecedented wave of foreign direct investment in the continent’s biggest and most dynamic economies.“The African Construction Trends report confirms continued, intensive construction activity across the continent. The journey may not be high speed just yet but it is unfolding at a steadily increasing pace.”Source: Deloitte
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Matthew Diersen, Risk and Business Management Specialist, Ness School of Management & Economics, South Dakota State UniversityFeeder cattle have been under seasonal price pressure, similar to last year. Thus, locking in cattle prices or spending money for insurance may not be a high priority at this time. However, it is never a bad time to plan nor to look for cost-effective ways to manage risk. Livestock Risk Protection (LRP), price coverage sold by insurance agents, is similar to the purchase of put options on cattle futures contracts. LRP is administered by the Risk Management Agency (RMA) with a federally-subsidized premium that is set to increase soon.Interest in and usage of LRP has fluctuated since first being offered in the early 2000s. Nationally, coverage with the feeder cattle endorsement peaked at over 300,000 head in crop year 2014. Such a total was still less than 1% of the U.S. calf crop. Coverage for the most recent crop year, which ends on June 30, is unlikely to exceed 90,000 head. Demand for the product has fallen with lower prices. Demand in South Dakota remains relatively high at over 27,000 head covered in crop year 2019, but the absolute level covered remains low. Locally, producers and insurance agents seem pleased with how LRP works. Some producers have expressed disappointment after finding out buying LRP is very similar to buying put options. Coverage with the fed cattle endorsement has been small regardless of location or crop year.In April, the RMA announced several changes to LRP, effective on July 1 with the 2020 crop year. The premium subsidy is the most relevant change. Until now, the subsidy has been small and LRP premiums have been very close to the cost of put option coverage with a brokerage fee. Thus, on a per cwt basis producers would have been indifferent between using LRP and put options. The subsidy is increasing to 20 to 35%, depending on the coverage level. An additional subsidy applies for beginning farmers and veteran farmers. The subsidy applies to the full cost of the coverage, but remains low compared to the subsidy on most crops. The highest subsidy rate applies to the lowest level of coverage, 70 to 79% of the base price. At this large deductible level the premium cost is already very low, so an increased subsidy is not likely to look more attractive. The 20% subsidy applies to the 95 to 100% coverage level. Based on recently available premiums, the higher subsidy will only reduce costs by 30 to 60 cents per cwt.The main advantage of LRP will likely continue to be the ability to buy coverage on a per head basis. When using a standard futures or options contract, the size is fixed at 50,000 pounds for feeder cattle. Thus, a producer would need groups of 100 calves weighing 500 pounds to effectively use such contracts. With LRP, the same per cwt option cost is the base, but then it is applied per head, effectively reducing the cost when less than 100 head increments are covered. Smaller producers, producers selling steers and heifers at different times, producers backgrounding a portion of their calves and those only owning a share of a calf crop may have relatively small groups of calves to sell and thus insure. A higher subsidy makes the cost advantage of LRP even better in such situations.
–From BuildingGreen’s 2009 Top-10 Products list The Rheem HP-50 is an Energy Star-listed, heat-pump water heater with an integral 50-gallon tank. Intended for residential use, the HP-50 operates in three modes: Energy Saver mode uses the heat pump only (energy factor 2.0); Normal mode, for higher demands, uses the heat pump and one of two electric-resistance elements (energy factor 1.5); and Electric Heat Only mode relies solely on the electric elements, functioning like a conventional water heater for particularly high demands. These 75.5″-high, 21″-diameter units have an operating range between 40°F and 120°F and come with automatic freeze/overheat protection. The HP-50 comes with a 10-year limited warranty and is available through plumbing wholesalers. The Rheem HP-50 is not the highest-efficiency heat-pump water heater on the market, but it is the first relatively affordable, integral-storage, heat-pump water heater from a large national company to enter the North American market. It is also the quietest product on the market, rated at 49 dB, and has the longest warranty.More information:Rheem Manufacturing Company101 Bell Rd.Montgomery, AL 36117Phone: 334-260-1500Toll-free: 800-432-8373www.rheem.com
Sachin Tendulkar came agonisingly close to a phenomenal 100th international century before a pathetic India slumped to an innings and eight runs defeat in the fourth and final cricket Test to give a ruthless England a resounding 4-0 series win at The Oval cricket ground in London on Monday. Score | PicturesNeeding to bat out the entire fifth day to save the game, Tendulkar (91) led a spirited fightback alongwith Amit Mishra (84) but the complexion of the game changed dramatically after their dismissals as the visitors lost as many as seven wickets for a mere 21 runs to be all out for 283 in the second innings just at the stroke of tea.With this emphatic victory, England officially crowned themselves the number one team in Test rankings with 125 points followed by South Africa with 118 points.The Indians, who started the series as the number one Test team, surrendered the number one tag after losing the third Test in Birmingham and have now slipped to the number three position following the 4-0 whitewash.Spinner Graeme Swann was the wrecker-in-chief for England with with impressive figures of six for 106 while Stuart Broad chipped in with two wickets.Resuming at the overnight total of 129 for three, Tendulkar and Mishra raised hopes of drawing the game as the duo put on 144 runs for the fourth wicket but Mishra’s departure virtually opened up the floodgates as none of the Indian batsmen showed the determination to hang around for long.The visitors suffered a stunning collapse, losing their last seven wickets for 21 runs, a reflection of the caputilation which has been a feature right through the series.advertisementTendulkar and Mishra, who resumed this morning, continued the good work for the first 40 minutes after lunch but then both were gone in quick succession.Mishra started the rot when he played inside the line to a Graeme Swann delivery and his off-stump was pegged back.The gusty knock by the leg-spinner lasted for 184 minutes and 141 balls and his 84 runs included 10 fours.From the other end, India suffered the double blow when Tendulkar was given out leg before wicket which appeared a harsh decision as the Tim Bresnan delivery appeared to be heading down the leg stump.Television replays showed that the ball would have hit the top of the leg stump.Tendulkar made his 91 runs in 239-minutes and 172-ball innings, slamming 11 fours. It was not the best of his knock as he was dropped on scores of 70 and 85 off Swann and there was also a stumping against the off-spinner which went abegging last night.India?s innings unfolded quickly as Suresh Raina took his second duck from the match, out again to Swann but this time leg-before-wicket.England claimed the second new ball as soon as it was due and its? effect was immediately apparent. Mahendra Singh Dhoni (3) slashed at a wide delivery from Stuart Broad and was caught at second slip.RP Singh departed in the same over when he edged an outswinger into the gloves of wicketkeeper Matt Prior.Gautam Gambhir came out to bat at number eight and was hit on his helmet by a rising delivery from James Anderson.After six overs by the medium-pacers, off-spinner Swann was brought into attack and there was a loud claim for a catch in close-in cordon off Ishant Sharma which was upheld by umpire Rod Tucker.But the batsman asked for a review on the decision and the replays showed there was no contact with either the bat or the gloves.Swann also claimed the wicket of Gambhir when the left-hander charged down the wicket and only spliced a catch to Eoin Morgan at gully.-With PTI inputs